Saturday, 15 February 2020

What are the fundamentals of Cloud Computing and Data Science?

         

         Data science refers to a collection of related disciplines focusing on the use of data to create new information and technology. It provides useful insights for better decisions. For ex, big data overcomes the challenge of analyzing the huge volume and modern data generated at high speed. In the real world, computing devices such as cellphones, security cameras are constantly generating data and connected to the internet, also known as IOT is ever-growing. Computers can make decisions based on trusted algorithms to make accurate predictions. Data analytics is a more enhanced way of taking advantage of exponentially increasing computing power and storage capacity. You need the basic knowledge of statistics to be a successful data scientist. Basically, the data industry is driven by IT in the languages like python, R which comes with powerful libraries that implement statistical functions and visualization features. The programmer or data scientist automate the necessary tasks and focus on solving large problems. Distributed file system like Hadoop and distributed processing like Spark plays a critical role in big data that enables you to make informed decisions. Machine Learning helps to detect data patterns and make better predictions about a dataset. For ex, In fraud detection, machine learning dramatically reduces the workload by a significant number of data points and presents only the suspicious candidates. The visualization tools can greatly enhance the presentation. Data scientists need to specialize in core job duties in particular area.
          Data science requires support from cloud computing and virtualization for the ever-increasing size, speed and accuracy requirements for the data sets we have to manage. Cloud computing provides the scalability requirement for computing resources. Actually, the cloud provides the processing power and storage space. The software application connects virtual machines through a high-speed network and implements distributed file and processing systems. Hadoop and Spark are the key elements that build on virtual machines. It solves data science problems by connecting the specific data science application. Cloud computing, virtualization, machine learning, and distributed computing are technologies for data scientists to do their job effectively. Proxmos is easy to install for cloud computing and virtualization to build your own cloud and configure the software. Weka is a machine learning tool that allows users to run various machine learning algorithms in a GUI environment.

Fundamentals of Cloud Computing: If you want to familiarize yourself with Azure computing, first you need to familiarize yourself with cloud computing as a whole. There are 3 types of cloud computing. Those are,
  1. Public Cloud
  2. Private Cloud
  3. Hybrid Cloud
       When we talk about the infrastructure, you need to know the infrastructure deployed in your company and you need to manage the server, hardware, services, firewalls managed in your
organization by internal administrator who is responsible for the functions and functionalities for the user. The user consumes the services and you need to update or upgrade and manage the hardware that services live on. In a private cloud, the user could be an administrator who has a portal based environment from which they manage the environment, provision servers, deployed applications, websites, and all the things. It depends on the software that manages the private cloud and that exposes all the functionalities in the portal. For ex, the System Center 2012 by Microsoft provides the private cloud infrastructure. It is typically a private data center so that you will be responsible for hardware, software, and network services. The vendor is responsible for most tasks that are performed in the public cloud like Microsoft Azure, Google public cloud, AWS. It uses a leasing base model which is basically pay as you go or use infrastructure that you consume resources of workloads, applications and services. The usage can be the data stored in the cloud infrastructure and services offered by virtual machines. The advantage of public cloud infrastructure is that you can deploy a new application or server at a very low cost and you don't need new hardware to support the additional infrastructure. Ultimately, it reduces the capital expenditure of the company. The Hybrid cloud is the mix of public and private solutions where you can have your own internal private data center, store workloads with some services, and applications into the public cloud. It is more complex to manage because you have to manage both environments with coexistence.

Cloud Computing Services: It is a collection of remote servers connected via computer networks available through internet. Virtualization implements cloud computing. It uses the Hypervisor operating system on which many OS can be installed like Windows and Linux. You can fire up virtual machines and leverage vast resources of cloud provider when the business operation grows gradually and exponentially. It is the flexibility to grow your infrastructure quickly if necessary.  Cloud computing companies specialize in managing server farms and know-how to maximize the profit and minimize the expenses. There are 3 major deployment models of cloud. Those are,
   1. Infrastructure as a Service(IAS) - The computer lab is an infrastructure that you are trying to use as a service. For ex., If you want 10 PCs, you can use AWS EC2 and start 10PCs and put them in the same network. Now, this is our computer lab.
   2. Platform as a Service(PAS) - It is the platform to run your code. You can just go to the cloud and tell them which compiler and interpreter you want and can run it. The cloud IDE can used to write and run the code.
   3. Software as a Service(SaaS) - It is self-explanatory. For ex, the google docs and dropbox which gives free storage and this is a cloud service software for your purposes.

Application Migration to Cloud:  A successful migration of the large portfolio requires a couple of things. Those are,

    * Think and Plan strategically and,
    * Rapidly iterate through feedback loops to fix the things that are going wrong

      But, there are a lot of things to consider when migrating to cloud. It includes application architecture, the ability to scale-out, distributed nature etc., When we are migrating the applications to the cloud, we are getting a new architecture that's going to have different properties or different characteristic than traditional systems. The advantage of cloud migration is the ability to do a active-active architecture. It means we run the application in real-time at the same time. One application takes over the other if there's a failure. Here, we are automating the things and the goodness of being in the cloud is worth to the business. The application migration are necessary, because
   * you are selling to the stakeholder that are funding to the cloud migration.
   * It makes the business more agile and delivers the value.
   * We are understanding the applications in wide for the specific needs of the application and looking at the general consensus.
   * We are modernizing the things in moving the database models, technologies, improving the security and governance and leveraging the systems whatever the purpose we need.

The important steps in Cloud Migrations are,                                                                           
                                           
Ultimately, there is a bit of trial and error, so set the operation processes and continuous improvement.

Data Migration to Cloud: Data is the highest priority when migrating to the cloud. Basically, data is the business and it is everywhere in enterprise. The data is killer application of cloud computing. We are migrating to the cloud and finding more values in new ways in innovations through running databases, big data systems, predictive analysis, and AI based systems in the cloud. So, the data selection is a critical process to understand which database is bound to which applications, what they're doing, security issues, compliance and performance issues that leads to success. In the Business case, migration, testing, and deployment are the understanding of data. You need to look at the applications that depend on data and do the deployment. Ultimately, the goal of leveraging data is to lowering operational costs, integrating existing data silos to make different databases communicate one another as a single dataset and influence actions and outcomes but not just data so they have the information they need to run the business better. We are not going to move every piece of data that exists on-premises into the cloud. We may move 70% of it and we have to deal with integration with on-premise data stores and those that exist in the cloud. So, make sure to build a solid architectural foundation for success when considering data, avoid duplicate data and data silos. In a real-world scenario, you need to consider the following things when you migrate to cloud,
 * It is necessary to understand the total cost of ownership(TCO) for the first year, second year, five years etc., It includes the TCO for applications, for databases, for cloud instances and ROI. The top 5 TCO/ROI are,
   - Value of Agility
   - Cost to retire selected applications, infrastructure or data centers
   - Changes required to maintain a service level
   - Software costs
   - Organizational transformation costs
 * Ensure that the solid business case exists before the migration can begin and how the technology going to be applied
 * The value metrics or value points that need to be determined like including the agility, compressed time to market, cost savings etc., by which you will be measured against the total cost






Friday, 31 January 2020

What is cloud computing and CRM for client app?

     

       Cloud Computing is a remotely hosted platform. It has the infrastructure, platform, and application. The infrastructure includes the computer, storage facilities, and network. The network could be centrally located or spread out internationally. On that particular hardware, there is a layer called platform. It is all about the object storage, identity management, run time environment for programs, databases etc., For ex, the various kinds of hosting platforms where you have the basic storage, databases and run time engines etc., There are various applications running on the software side. The platforms and infrastructure are managed by centrally provided companies like AWS, Microsoft Azure etc., Actually, you are logging in to the application through servers by desktop, laptop, tablets and doing your work. Everything can be installed on the cloud and not installed locally. This is called cloud computing.



The sales process in CRM can be defined as,

                        Generate   ------------>  Qualify  ----------------> Close

Qualifying Leads: For a long time, B2B businesses (not just SaaS businesses) have been using the qualifying leads. By qualifying leads, a business makes the sales process more efficient. The sales team highlighting the leads that have the highest likelihood of converting to customers. It is determined by two factors
  1.  Firmographics and,
  2.  Interest
        Firmographics measure the business characteristics of a lead. How big is the company they're with? what is their job title? what industry they are in? Qualifying firmographics hones your sales efforts on your target customer profile. Interest measures the lead's interest in buying your product. The more they do, the more interested they are and more likely they will buy. There are 3 types of leads to focus on. Those are,
    1. Marketing Qualified Leads(MQL)
    2. Sales Qualified Leads(SQL)
    3. Product Qualified Leads(PQL)
     MQL factor in firmographics and interest. They have shown little interest(eg., signed up the opt-in)to marketing initiative and some kind of firmographic criteria. These kinds of leads deserve attention but are not quite ready for a personal touch from a salesperson. SQL has a deep interest and taken actions that justify attention from a salesperson. Typically, SQL has visited your website several times, downloads the whitepaper or requested a demo. In the modern world, the free trials and freemium has changed the deep interest of the qualifying lead. But, people aren't going to pay for a product until they've seen value on it. PQL shows true deep interest by,
   * Using the Product
   * Hitting First value
    Traditional qualification criteria include downloading an ebook or visiting pricing page activities that imply an interest in your offering. The user set-up a trial so they could give your product go. From there, some will love with the features and insightful methodology on their own terms. The ones that continue the setup process for your product end-up hitting the first value. This is how to distinguish themselves as truly interested. It means the lead has found value from using the product and more likely to keep wanting to use it. PQLs are more likely to be long term successful customers.

Business Setup for PQL: To build a proper PQL process, you need to define the criteria that will make someone product qualified and have set of guideline for turning these leads into paying customers. There are 6 steps for setting up PQLs. Those are,
1. Understanding Activation(Rate) and Measurement(Score) - the two key PQL measurement
2. Set up a system for keeping tabs on product data
3. Define Activation Criteria for Product
4. Create engagement scoring engine
5. Rank Activated trials by engagement
6. Make sure sales team access to the data

    There are few steps a new user needs to do to get set up and get the value of your product. They are typically product-specific. For ex, In the modern SaaS company with GSuite Plugin for email collaboration, the activation rate is the percentage of steps completed. If the account or user has done 2 out of 5 steps, they are 40% activated. Once the account is activated, you can dig deeper into their PQL status by looking at their engagement score. This is all about the events or actions a user can take in your product. There are several things one might do in the SaaS product like creating a report, check the payment systems, etc., Suppose you have a user who sets up a trial, he could give your product go. You can figure out 3 or 4 actions that allow a new account or user to experience "first value"? These actions are the activation checklist. Because you are tracking your product data and you'll be able to track activation progress of your accounts. The engagement scoring engine allows you to give each of your users and accounts an engagement score based on how much they use your product and what features they are using. Once you created the engagement scoring model for your product, you need to compare and rank them.
         When the customer asks how they should be designing their PQL process, the first question to ask yourself is,  How complex is your product? More simply, how hard is it for a new user to self-serve their way to first value? It means manual support of intervention from your team. Simple products have a free trial and freemium model as well. Intermediate models are complex than simple, but there is an opportunity for a fair percentage of users to self serve the way to value. The complex products require manual support to get to the promised land. It requires technical implementation, access to data or tools from other departments or deeper domain knowledge for a user to get value. Typically, the complex product has a free trial period, but they can only sell to customers who go through a sales demo with a more hands-on approach.

CRM Basics:  There are 4 basic features in CRM. Those are,
         1. Marketing,
         2. Sales Force,
         3. Customer Support and
         4. Service Automation for internal service
     In business, you need to generate leads, prospects and turn them into customers so that the business will grow in that way. The leads can be generated through online, offline, websites, cold calls, emails, social media etc., How does the business nurture the lead? When you have the lead, the marketing automation sends some promotional material and you can program your emails for the automated campaigns. First, The qualified lead is to be converted. It is the transition from the formal sales process. The qualified lead needs to assign, follow up, gauge interest, gauge intent and identify the opportunities. The converted lead considered to be a sales prospect. Sales are the strategy to exchange goods. At any given time, the multiple prospects will be in different stages. You need to define your sales processes like stages, progress, and the probability of success.  The sales funnel, deals and tracking the sales are managed in the sales force automation. The prospects and stages are defined as a sales pipeline for the business. In the contact center customer support, you will be able to assign various cases to representatives and assign cases to various people to give support and decide when the services are going to happen. In service automation, you can create projects, calendars and automate the features of messages, reminders, and alerts. So, Design something that works for your business. Here is the sales cycle that must be refined over time.
     One of the main utilities in CRM is Analysis. You will be able to create the reports from various sources like leads that are to be converted, budgets, sales, number of support service calls, calls answered, and cases solved. It is important to analyze all the data and construct business decisions out of the state. The Collaboration utility will help you to collaborate with the marketing, sales, HR and accounting Team. Also, you can send emails together or each other to work with the project. It is possible to collaborate in any office and any part of the world with remote login to that place and do the collaboration. Next, the Relational Intelligence is to understand and analyze each and every customer with the number of deals doing with them, how much we spend for our product, product preferences, material they are supplying etc., From the data, you will be able to understand the relation with the customer or vendor and able to predict the future from the past history. Lastly, the customers are coming from various channels like online, offline, telephone etc.,  All the input channels can be collected into a central database that can be categorized and assigned individually. This is called multiple channel integration. For ex. the cloud based SaaS agile CRM automate sales, marketing and service in one platform.
      The CRM works in a way that the leads are coming from verbal communications, telephone marketing, emails that are send to appropriate data classification. First, it is send to composition and insertion of organizational database that will classify into various categories. Once the data has put into organization database that data gets analyzed and disseminate into various departments like the support queries goes to support, leads goes to sales, campaign related queries goes to marketing and management related queries goes to management.


Tuesday, 14 January 2020

What are the Important characteristic of Artificial Intelligence(AI)?

   
         
      AI is the development of methods and algorithms that allow computers to behave in an intelligent way. AI was introduced to the scientific community in 1950 by ALAN TURING in computational machinery and intelligence. Turing explained in his article that the machines can think and argued in favor of intelligence in machines that marked the interaction between AI and psychology. He focused on analysis, problems and mentalistic terms. This intended to eliminate the distinction between natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. He has contributed the design of the first computer capable of playing chess and the establishment of the symbolic nature of computing. In 1962, McCarthy and Raphael designed and constructed the mobile robot called "Shakey" that has to challenge the real world in terms of space, movement, time, etc., It initiated the study of cognitive process discussion centered around the problems of mental and internal representation of knowledge, perception, and meaning of the problems. Raphael's basic ideas were to gather in a machine with a capacity to learn from the experience, to model, recognize the visual patterns and manipulate the symbols etc., There are some questions about the performance of intellectual work by some machines to be a truly intelligent function? Maurice Wilkes proposes an argument the need to develop a generalized learning program that enables a computer to learn in any field.
          AI can automate any mechanical processes like calculation, data storage, and processing. There are 3 basic steps in the fundamental process behind making decisions in problem-solving are,
     1. Analysis of the Situation
     2. Logical Reasoning and
     3. Decision
The application has been developed to simulate human behavior through computer systems. Human senses are interrelated with computer systems to build the applications that humans are solving every day. AI program will help the following goals like learning, perception, and problem-solving. Also, it is used in specific areas like diagnosing diseases and driving cars etc., There are 4 types of AI. Those are
    * Systems that act as Humans - For ex., Simulating the human behavior in a given environment
    * Systems that think like Humans - For ex., Machine makes think like humans
    * Systems that act Rationally - For ex., Intelligent behavior that can be created with a computational process
    * Systems that think Rationally - For ex., Focusing on mental faculties that can be emulated in computer models
Basically, we are separating the logical or human and action-oriented or cognitive oriented. And, there are 3 basic domains in AI. Those are,
    * Formal  Domains - It is intended to solve problems using different models like search models, algorithms etc.,
    * Technical Domains - This will be used in scientific-technical knowledge like medical diagnosis, robotics, expert systems etc.,
    * Cognitive Domains - Here, we try to understand the functioning of the human mind and its cognitive functions like reasoning, hearing, talking etc.,

Characteristics of AI: The behavior of the program is not explicitly described by the algorithm. The sequence of steps is influenced by that particular problem present and the program specifies the sequence of steps necessary to solve a given problem. It finds the own way to the solution to the problem. This is called a declarative program.  On the other hand, the program that is not AI follows a algorithm that explicitly defines the rules for a given input variable in any given program. This is called a procedural program. The programs incorporate the factors of relationships of the real world and the domain of the knowledge in which they operate is called knowledge-based reasoning. In accounting, the AI collects the knowledge and more adaptive towards solving new types of problems. AI's will not work poorly structured problems and data.
     Scope:  The machines solve the problem that was not defined before. It does not solve the specific problems of the second-degree equation. It's a method that creates a system capable of finding methods to solve the problem. It goes a higher level of understanding and solves a broader variety of problems.
    Perception: The machines able to react to the environment and influence through sensors and interaction devices with outside. The perception of image synthesizers that a lot of computer communicate through spoken language on the walls and not recently has done before.
  Communication: It communicates with the computers through an assembly language or high-level specific language. AI by means of understanding the nature of language that we humans can speak particular problems. Traditional languages have not been well adapted to AI applications. AI applications are using the Java, Python etc.,
  Expert Systems: It consists of large knowledge bases created to store the information available to human experts in various fields and a series of rules manipulation expressed in the specific language. For ex, computer design, medical diagnosis, chemical engineering provides the material of highly successful expert systems.
   AI Hardware: AI technique came fast access to memory banks and they are huge compared to other types of programs. Also, they are fast manipulation of data. The more advanced the hardware, it is easier to work on AI program.
   Robotics: The science of robotics involves different AI techniques. The idea of a ready robots with the ability to learn from experience is the central theme of AI and research. The robot communicates with the natural language and must perform the task equivalent of machine and origin.

Applications of AI: AI is a combination of technique and algorithms that have the purpose of creating machines with the same capabilities that human being has. We have logical reasoning, presentation of knowledge, planning, general intelligence, natural language processing, perception, and many others. For ex, Siri from Apple social network, Pinterest and google photos are an example of AI. Everything is possible with AI. Here are the practical examples of AI,
   * In agriculture, it simplifies and accelerates decision making. Also, the best time to plant and harvest. There are thousands of platforms using market analysis on the information such as information about soil seeds, climate changes and analyzing all the information, we can predict what will happen and the best results.
   * In logistics and transportation, there are self-driving cars that can be driven by robots in the modern world.
   * In health and biotechnology, there is a faster and accurate diagnosis of health. AI helps physicians and patients have a faster and more accurate diagnosis. One of the most important aspects of decision making is the detection of different diseases or taking information from blood samples and other types of material to be analysed. AI provides key insights into the data provided by patients. By analyzing the data, we can make better and faster solutions to the existing problems.
   * In Marketing, AI makes the sales forecast and choosing the right product to recommend the particular cost into a particular customer etc., There is an excellent application in the retail sector is inventory optimization where AI forecasts incomes and determines how much input should be purchased.
  * In education, AI suggests a new course, personalize the course for optimized learning and promote education. Also, it allows us to help and build an online education system.
  * In financial services, the financial institutions recognize the risk of a customer and predict the market patterns, consequences and recommend the operations.
  * In manufacturing and supply chain, AI conducting the study of the product and parts that require maintenance. It helps the manufacturing companies about when to buy or produce as well as predicts the impacts and risks for the supplier.
  * In Banks, the personal assistance helps to perform some digital operations and answer to the questions which streamline the attention to the public.
        There are some great websites provides AI services that automate the workforce using AI tools. The AI software solves the hassle of scheduling meetings and appointments. It solves all the problems you face when you schedule the meetings and appointments to work. It uses Amy and Andrew that understand the natural language and help you to schedule, negotiate the meeting with your clients. The Octaneai makes the sales through Facebook messenger and increases your revenue that your customer will love. This chatbot kind of thing works on the abandoned messages like people purchasing the product and pitches the product. It can turn out automatically as a question that will help to turn a revenue and customer behavior for the results. The Datarobot provides complete automation for machine learning. It automatically builds and evaluate thousands of models and manage all the deployed models and data sets. The Presenceai helps B2B customers and replace the calls to text. It automates the recurring tasks like sending and booking the reminders confirmation etc., The smith is a receptionist service that automatically captures the website tag and books the leads or clients and builds the relationship with existing clients. The Codota is the ultimate java developer that completes millions of code. You will be able to code examples by click, follow standards, reduce errors in java. The Zenbo is a small robot that can speak, connect, learn, express. The vspatial is the workplace of the future for remote access of your PC and collaborate with the participants.
    

Tuesday, 31 December 2019

How to Improve the B2B, B2C and eCommerce Sales?

       
            When you consider the sales funnel, there are 3 types of traffic. Those are cold traffic,warm traffic, and hot traffic. The cold calling is to sell something when you are doing door-door sales, picking up the phone calling for businesses or trying to reach on social media etc., This is cold outreach called cold calling. It is hardest to convert the sales. The way of communication with cold traffic person is different than the warm traffic person and hot traffic person. Because, whenever you try to pitch the big package consists of 3 to 5 features, it is really hard to get that kind of sales. When you try to pitch something smaller or lower front end type of offer is good for cold calling. So, it is suitable for the people those who are aware of the problem they're are facing. But, they are not aware of you nor they are not aware of the products or services. Warm traffic are aware of the problem and you have started to develop the relationship with them but they haven't purchased anything with you. In the sales funnel, you can see that they have opted in email list and communicate with them. It is to develop a bond and developing the relationship with you. The hard traffic for the people those who likes you and trust you. They are aware of their problem, their solution and aware of yourself. They are taking some offer and are the buyers. The sequence of the sales funnel can be described as,

                           Cold Traffic ------> Warm Traffic -------> Hot Traffic
                             (unaware)                 (Aware)                     (Buyers)

       
         The Value Ladder helps you to convert the cold traffic to a warm traffic and the hot traffic.
The cold traffic comes from the blog post, social media updates, podcast, content videos, case study etc., In order to covert them to a warm traffic, we have to give some sort of Bait. This is  low tick front-end offer. Now, that offer can be a lead magnet through the cheat sheet, drop the email or free offering of the ebooks etc., This will bring them into your sales funnel eco-system and it is the warm traffic. You can develop the relationship by providing the low ticket offers of the physical products like product demos, branding videos, software plugin, free trails etc., Then, you start communicate with them and start selling the stuff. Warm traffic to the hot traffic by simply providing high-ticket paid type of people.
       Sales funnel is basically a marketing message in very specific format. Funnels are selling the physical or digital products. It is used to generate the leads and make the sales. If you are selling the digital product, you have to give the value. There are different types of funnels and different kinds of user journeys depends on your product. For ex, if you want to sell the ecommerce product, there are different kinds of funnel to think like membership funnel, application funnel, lead magnet, summit funnel, product launch funnel, trip-wire funnel, store front funnel, hero funnel etc., The most popular is trip-wire funnel which is basically low ticket front-end offer. Because, you are marketing the cold traffic. Cold traffic doesn't know about you, but they might aware of the problem and don't know about the solution. Our goal is to acquire the customer and we might lose the money on the front end and deliver the value. But, you need to keep the big picture in mind to look up the up-sells and follow up the funnels that you can squeeze more of the relationship.

Opt-in Funnel: It is obviously that you are grabbing the contact information of the lead. Most funnels have the opt-in elements like ecom, webinar etc., After the opt-in, you make them an offer. For ex, if you are getting the traffic from different places like facebook, instagram, youtube etc., the lead magnet is attracting to give them a contact details of the lead. So, the cold traffic becomes the warm traffic. Now, you wouldn't just want to give them a thank you page and you need give them a offer. It could be a thank you page with an offer or thank you page with webinar. Then, you can send email sequence regularly to develop a relationship with them that is an point of an opt-in. It is not just about selling, but creating the impact to solve the problems.
          The opt-in page has to be designed in such a way to capture the email and name with your offering. You know your target audience and what you have to provide for them because you know the problem that they're experiencing. If you don't know the problem of the target market and want to succeed with the funnel, you need to do some research that what problem your prospects are struggling with. It's to figure out something actionable that your prospects want to take action for solving the problem. So, you need figure out the problem of your prospects and create an actionable piece of content. The cheat sheet and checklist will get lot of people join in your email list. If the people wants an opt-in, you need to give them something to consume in 10-15 minutes. This could be the software trials, recipes, video training, checklists, how to guides etc., Whatever you offer, it is good to add private label(eg.,PLR products) like logo and name on it.

Typical B2B Sales Organization: B2B sales involves bunch of stipulation like you need to sell atleast 4 of the features or 3 brand new clients who has not done the business with us. So, if you are a team leader or individual contributor, you likely need to negotiate the goals before building to achieve the goals. Once, you have the goal, it is necessary to build the plan to achieve those goals. To build the plan, you need a Pipeline Report which is the excel format that will help you to achieve the long term goals. This document contains the perspective deals. Deals are defined as the real opportunity, created proposal, expected deal size, and signed agreement etc., The pipeline will tells  what can expect in the quarter. So, it gives the clear picture of where we are relative to the goals and what do we need to do to be successful. If you don't have enough deals in your pipeline, you need to find more leads. If you have a lot of deals, but it doesn't expected to close, then you need to figure out to close some of them. The steps and ratios will help to keep motivated and push forward. The pipeline will help to prioritize the daily activities. Finally, the structured process and weekly metrics will ensure success.
      The good sales team enjoys the synergies that allows to sell beyond the capabilities of individuals alone. Sales people understand the sales pitch, corporate process and culture of the organization. Sales admin to schedule the appointments and manage the sales tracking. If you try to blend too many of the skills into single job description, you might end up with a role that no one can do and no one wants. When you find the right person for each role and every one knows who does what and how the different professionals work together which will pay the big dividends across the organization. There are different skills needed to run the sales organization and selling to businesses. Basically, it is to focus on the next deal and creating an environment to support the deal makers. Having the right people with right skills are the key to success in sales organization.

Business Analytics: Analytics are also called as Business Intelligence and Decision Support. It involves mathematics, predictive modeling, Machine Learning Techniques that define the meaningful patterns and insights of the data. Analysis of data will enable and enhance the knowledge for the discovery. If we follow the instinct, there will be the loss of revenue and loss of life. Analysis of data uncover the correlation and pattern that helps to answer the following types of questions,
   * What happened?
   * How or Why did it happen?
   * What's happening now?
   * What is likely happen next?
     Analytics help you to understand the organization to retain the customer, prevent the fraud, finding effective ways to deliver the products and services etc., The Business analytics are useful in the areas of,
    * Discover and take advantage of trends
    * Predict and forecast the occurrences
    * Identify the risk and threads
    * Find hidden patterns like why the customers are leaving
    * Identify the opportunity especially for new products and services
    * Optimize the performance or quality of processes, people and machine
    * Digitize offering
    * Improving the Customer experience
    * Develop a new Business Model
    * Monetize data
    * Improve Safety
    The Analytic helps to take the ideal action of the humans or machines. Business Leader, Executive need to encourage or mandate that the organization become more data driven. It is the driving force of corporate strategy. Business leaders provide the necessary resources(including the budget) for particular project and ensure that analytic output acted upon it. The IT organization needs the acquisition, implementation and support of the technologies.
      

Sunday, 15 December 2019

What are the Best B2B and B2C Selling Practices and Techniques?

           

     In the B2B selling, you need to consider many buyers in the same sale. Marketing cares about how good the product it looks. Operations cares about how easy to maintain the product. Finance needs the cost to be predictable and within the budget. So, you need to build the support in each group for getting the signed agreement. Also, it is important to understand different criteria. B2B sales is an understanding of complex buying processes, customized services and demanding customers. The complexity and deal size make the work more challenging. The roles in B2B sales vary depending on what you sell, who you sell and the buying process. B2B is selling to someone who is working on behalf of the company.
        For the successful B2B sales, you need to understand the target market really well. The sales pitch may vary depending on the customer and procurement specialist. It is really important to understand the customer objective, needs of the company, and the people using the product. The pricing and service experience are different for different products. The software system manages the financial transaction is different than selling the jet planes. The company requires the B2B sales people to be able to accurately forecast timing, size and likelihood of closing the deals. So, B2B sales professionals specialized on the target industry, target buyer, the type of product and type of sale cycle.
     Often, the buying company request for proposal or RFP which outlines their criteria and must be answered in writing by interested sales people. In B2B model, you need to understand the company's process and asking lot of questions up front to qualify the buyer. It is really to know about the features and benefits of the products you sell and demonstrating or exceeding the needs and desires of the perspective customer.

B2B Selling Practices: The B2B sales process has the following 6 steps,
    * Qualify the lead
    * Exploring the Customer Objective
    * Define the offering
    * Preparing the Verbal Agreement
    * Close the Deal
    * Maintaining the customer relationship
The first step is to understand the qualifying prospect. It is find out if they have MANDATE means,
M - Money to buy
A - Authority to buy
N - Need to buy
D - Desire to buy
      From there, you can understand your customer objective. what they are trying to accomplish? and why did they try to meet with you? What the success meant to the organization and personal? These questions allow you to maximize the value and you must be specific about the deliverable to your customer. You need to list out carefully in the exploratory phase. It is ideal to scope your offering in person. If you provide the contract that outlines what you have discussed within the price range that they will be ready to sign in. Then, you can write up the contract and get the signature. Now, you have the deal and maintain the relationship for the long-term.
      If you have a laser focus on single goal, you will love the daily non-routine B2B sales. The highest priority of any B2B sales person is the activity that moves the deal forward to closing. Organizations requires sales people to track their efforts and progress using the software application that are designed to track and manage sales marketing activities. B2B sales person are taught by the sales pitch. It might be the set of slides created for marketing or demonstration by the product team. The most important goal is to build the relationship. You need to demonstrate the credibility and not trying to force the sales and they will reach out when they have the need. If your offering turns perfect fit, you can work toward the conceptual agreement to close the deal.
       Closing the deal are especially challenging. In B2B sales, you need to keep the momentum over the time and need to have a plan for each stage of your prospect to buy in. Find out the objections and close the deal one by one. You need to have a plan to build buy in and everyone in the room agree to the deal at the same time. Also, You might give better payment terms to move them to front of the line. The decision makers are crucial to close the deal. You have the strong relationship with prospect when your deal hits the quota. Still, you have the work to do even when you get the handshake that moment they verbally commit the transaction. Closing the deal for corporate client requires more attention in little details. Who is actually going to sign the contract? He might not be in the same office. You need to ensure that you have worked through the details around product delivery and keep the things moving forward. If you run the meeting without closing the deal, you run the risk of losing it. The budget go away and buyer can leave the company. Anything go wrong.

B2B Sales Strategies: There are many strategies that works best for the various customers. Some of the strategies are,
    * Creating a Buyer Personas
    * Mapping out a Buyer's Journey
    * Let your customer buy the Results and not the products
    * Start in Niche market and dominate
       Creating Buyer persona  is to identify the customers and what they are interested in it. The ideal customer is only one person, but most of the time we are getting the average customer. We want to target the person to most likely to purchase the product. Try using the Buyer Persona Generator. There are 6 factors to figure out our ideal customers. Those are,
    * Age
    * Gender
    * Region & Ethnicity
    * Income
    * Interest
    * Device Usage
        You need to define how these people are. Because, your customer for the product could be in the range of 35 to 40. If you don't know, you should think about who will purchase your product. You need to do a customer research and do your own studies and determine the age group of your product. Next, the gender is to figure out why the male or female are interested in particular thing. For ex, if you are selling toothbrush of pink in color and glitter on it, Would we target this toothbrush to men? It is a kind of identifying the ideal customer. The region and ethnicity are to figure out where are the customers are coming from and which country our people most likely to purchase the product. How much are the people you are targeting earning easily? If they earn $1000 per month, will they afford to buy our product? Is our potential customer interested in diving or water coloring? Make sure you have the clear list of interest and follow the interest. Finally, the device usage is to identify which device are they using? Perhaps, the android or iPhone to target your product.
      Buyer's journey is to understand what our customers are? why are they looking our products? How are they looking our products? What exactly are they looking for? What is the solution that they need? Based on that we can change the price, functionality and do so many things. The only thing need to do is buyer's journey. The 4 stages of buyer's journey are,
    * Awareness
    * Consideration
    * Decision
    * Post Purchase
       First of all as a eCommerce company we want to gain other people's attention or aware of the product. Customer needs to aware that they have the problem and our business needs to be aware that they have the problem. They have to be aware of these things and solve the problem in the company. So, we want them to pay attention to our product. Consideration is all about looking at the product and thinking about whether we need this product or don't need this product. In the decision stage, it is to convince the people to solve the problem and think about what the customer really want from you. In the post purchase, you need to make sure that they are happy with the product and might be come back with certain time in future. Post purchase is important when you have a great customer service.
        No one interested to buy the products if they don't bring results. So, it is important to make sure that your product brings the result. It is the process of reverse engineer and think about how do people feel when they purchase the product. If you can prove that these results are possible with your product you will make money. The results can be structured in 6 factors,
   * Specific - the results must have real world implications
   * Measurable - Measure the implication of the product and need to put down these number in structures that are comprehensible
   * Business Perspective - If the numbers don't show anything and interesting for your potential customers that are not important
   * Comprehensive - the results must be comprehensible for reading them. You can talk with that person to your product about the results and explain these results to that person.
   * Data - It is important to make sure that the results works best not just because of the time was great or economy was good.
   * Evoke Emotions - Results have to evoke emotions. We are not just sell to the people logically. We want to sell them emotionally. By purchasing the product, they will get closer to their own dream and the personal value has to them.
   Niche Market: If you want to get into market, start off in a niche market. Niche market is a small market where not too many businesses have their products. If you want to dominate any market, you need to go with the niche market because it is the fastest. Start off with one market and dominate the niche market then afterwards build your business in other markets. Here are the process to build your brand in a niche market.

   First of all, you need to identify your niche market. For ex, publishing the online course, ebooks etc., What exactly passionate and your business all about. Once you figure out the niche market, you need to start producing now. The more you produce and you will get more market share. For instance, if you have a lot of products and do proper marketing and you are basically a dominant force. Producing is the most important about dominating the niche market. Once you dominate the niche market and you have consistent recurring income streams, then build your brand inside the niche and you can move on to the next market. Finally, move on to the next market in larger or same size. Now, you have the certainty in the niche market, earning the income stream and it is good to take risk for big bucks.







     

Saturday, 30 November 2019

What are the Basic Accounting Principles of eCommerce Businesses?

   
       
          We can classify the eCommerce business websites on the basis of Business and Consumer.  On the Business, We can further classify into B2B or B2C eCommerce websites. Similarly, Based on the Consumer, We can further classify into C2B or C2C eCommerce websites. B2B eCommerce websites links different businesses or parts of the businesses. The transaction is taking place between the wholesalers, retailers, industrial manufacturer etc., B2B has a feature of high volume of sales per customer even the lesser number of customers. It has a secured payment system and privacy of information. B2C websites are the sites directly selling the products and services to the Customers. Generally, B2C has low volume per consumer and large number of consumers.
               C2B eCommerce websites are the sites where the consumer will set the prices. then the business enterprises bid to offer products and services. The consumers bond together as a buyer group and make the C2B relationship. These groups are economically motivated groups like demand aggregators or socially oriented group of cost related groups. Similarly, C2C ecommerce websites will enable the consumers to sell or buy each other through auction process. It exchange between and among consumers that includes the third party involvement. Ecommerce operators will conduct the specific event or promotions. In such cases, the planned liability on the account of sale of merchandise or service will be communicated to the vendor. The decision on shared liability will be taken on case to case basis. It will be communicated and debited to the vendors account from time to time.

Revenue for Ecommerce Companies:
        Revenue is the Gross inflow of cash or Receivable arising by ordinary activities due to the sales of goods and rendering services. Revenue can be generated from enterprise resources that yielding the interest, dividends and Royalties etc., The eCommerce companies main revenue are subscription, membership, web hosting, content selling, merchandising and advertising activities. The revenue can be recognized when the goods are sold and services are rendered. It is mainly related to the performance which can be achieved and certain conditions are fulfilled like,
   1. The seller of goods should transfer the property ownership in goods to the buyer for a price
   2. The significant risk and rewards of ownership transfer to the buyer. The seller has no effective control of goods transferred that are associated with ownership.
   3. Once you sold the goods, there should not be any significant uncertainty exists on the sale of goods.
      In the services, the revenue can be generated through the complete service of contract or proportionate completion of contract whichever relates to the revenue of the work can be accomplished. The performance will be considered to be achieved when there is no significant uncertainty derived from rendering of services.
   
Revenue by Merchandising:  In merchandising services, the significant issue is to recognize the revenue as Gross Amount(related to cost of sales) or Net Amount(similar to commission) of revenue. It is happening in the ecommerce companies which are in the business of distribution, reselling to the 3rd party of products and services. It is mainly in the B2C websites.
       If a ecommerce company acting as a principal means it is assuming as a risk on the account of collection, delivery, returns and reward of ownership,  then that ecommerce company should recognize the revenue on cost of Gross Basis only. If an ecommerce company acting as an agent or broker, It means that they sell goods and services, but they do not assume risk and reward of ownership. So, the compensation is in the form of fee and commission. It is an engaged service bringing purchaser and seller together. In such cases, they receive only the service charges. They do not go for the Gross Basis.

Auction Revenue: Some eCommerce companies host auction sites so that users can purchase or sell the goods and services. This auction income is divided into listing fee and transaction fee. Listing fee is a upfront fee received when a seller or purchaser register and maintained over the specific period. This listing fee can be recognized over the period of contract or there is no significant outstanding vendor obligations and the collection should be reasonably certain. So, it is not recognized revenue on the day 1 itself. For ex, OLX provides the auction site where goods and services can be listed. They will collect the upfront fee and accounting entry will be passed as differed revenue. The subscription period amount of 1 month will be considered as revenue of that month and will recognized as revenue over the period of contract. The second auction revenue is transaction fee. It is for facilitating the transaction and in the form of % of revenue earned by the seller. This revenue can be recognized when the transaction is completed and confirmed that no further vendor obligations. For ex, the product sold on OLX for the transaction charge of 2% of sale value will be considered as a direct revenue.

Ecommerce Accounting Principles:  The measurement of cost related to website can be recognized as intangible item. It is to decide and treat as asset to capitalize it or expense. So, We need to classify into research phase and development phase. The expenditure incurred during the research phase are expense(P&L). The expenditure incurred on the development phase of the website and make sure that the future economic benefits can be generated that expenditure are capitalized. The cost incurred in developing the new websites after the 1st website open to the user will be expensed in the period in which it incurred. There are other expenditure in eCommerce companies like acquiring the tangible assets, land and building, computer hardware and software etc.,
    Ecommerce companies sells the content for a price through download facility. The revenue can be recognized when it considered as a sale and delivered to the purchaser. For ex, In online classes, the website content can be provided through username and password. So, it is considered as delivered when userid and password made available to the students. Ecommerce companies provides the webhosting and maintenance services. It recognize the revenue over the period for which the hosting and maintenance service is provided. But, there is a condition that this service should be provided on continuous basis. There is an other method when you come across more systematic and rational.
      In the sales return, the option given to the customer to return the goods are sold. In some cases, the customer has the right to return the goods. There is an uncertainty of possibility of return. So, you can not recognize the revenue till the goods accepted by the customer or till the time period of rejection is elapsed. In some other cases, the eCommerce companies based on the past experience, they can make reliable estimate on amount of goods will return. So, they can recognize the revenue only for the items that are not expected to be returned.

Equity Based Ecommerce Consideration of Accounting: Ecommerce companies will be funding the expenditure through the issue of equity shares when the cash is not available as alternative to attract new business relationships, alliances and supplier agreements. If the products, services and assets are acquired in exchange of equity shares, you need to check the transaction between the related parties or unrelated parties. The transaction is between the unrelated parties, they are acquiring the product, service and asset in exchange of shares. In this case, the value placed is FAIR value will be recognized as revenue.
      If the transaction between the related parties, the value has not been placed on the product, service or asset. Now, we have to see the fair value of product, service, asset is available. If it available, we have to recognize as fair value. If it is not available, we need to see the fair value of the equity transferred available and recognize as fair value of equity.

Points and Loyalty Program in Accounting: This will be given in different structures where the ecommerce companies selling the points to business partners who will in turn issue to the customers based on the purchases and actions of the customer. For ex, the ecommerce company in arrangement with book store will issue the reward points to the customers who will make minimum volume of purchase. The customer will exchange the reward points for using the ecommerce website. In other case, the ecommerce company selling directly to the customer so that it will encourage members to take action which will in turn generate payment from the business partner. The costs are associated with the incentives. If the incentive with reference to the particular customer only, it will be shown as deduction from turnover value. So, the appropriate estimate of cost is required. If the loyalty points are general in nature,  it will go for the general provision and will be treat it as expense(P&L) instead of showing the deduction in turnover.

Risk & Rewards to the Customer: The revenue is an important metric in eCommerce Companies. If you look at the valuation of eCommerce companies that are all revenue multiples. The accounting issue is to determine the revenue presentation are Gross or Net. Ecommerce companies accept the payments through credit cards, debit cards, internet banking and cash on delivery.  The delivery responsibility of the ecommerce company is the risk and rewards transferred to the customer in B2B or B2C. It is important to take into consideration that the insurance and sales return on accounting. The eCommere companies tie up with logistic providers to bear the insurance risk and cost so that the ecommerce companies can recognize the revenue when they dispatch the goods from the warehouse. There is another scenario that the cost of delivery through transport borne by the ecommerce Entity. So, the risk of delivery and risk of loss are still with the ecommerce companies. They can recognize the revenue only when the product is delivered to the customer.
     
Membership & Subscription Fees : The membership and subscription fees can be collected in 3 ways. Those are,
    * Non-Refundable Fee
    * Refundable Fee
    * Periodic Fee
     Non-Refundable fee for use of all services in website by one time payment of indefinite use of services of website or a specified time period. There are two elements involved. Those are
    * Initial Membership
    * Revenue
       The initial membership fees or entrance fees that should be capitalized. The revenue that can arise by rendering of services of supply of products. For ex, the amazon prime is a paid service. During the seasonal sale, the subscriber is given access to their website prior to other customers and it does not include any products purchased.
      For the Non-refundable fee of the use of all services of website indefinitely will collect only the initial fee. Here, the products and services will be provided in future by partly or wholly for the advance payment. It implies that the service on continuous basis after the upfront fee. But, there is uncertainty involved in the usage of service. You should recognize the revenue not less than 5 years  or below 5 years in a systematic and rational basis of more representative of service rendered.
      The refundable fee are subject to certain conditions stipulated by subscription agreement. In such cases, the revenue can not be recognized by the membership fees. You can recognize that fee as a revenue only the reasonably certain conditions will not be fulfilled by the subscriber. Till that time, the amount received will be retained by the customer refundable fees account.
      The subscription and periodic membership fees can be collected on monthly, quarterly and annually. You can recognize as a revenue over the period of subscription. For ex, Our company sells the online inventory tracking software, the customer pays the subscription fees of Rs.5000/- monthly. At the start of each month the sign up fee of Rs.5000/- will be charged. This sign up fee will be used for providing the service in the first month and the beginning of every month the fee will be collected. We can not recognize as a service on day 1 and we need to provide the service for next 30 days. So, this will be retained as a deferred revenue(means money received, service not provided)  account of Rs.5000/-. At the end of the month, once we provide all the services, we can recognize as revenue. Now, it will be credited to revenue account.




Friday, 15 November 2019

How to Build Django eCommerce Web Application?

           
          Django is a web application that comprises bunch of apps. It is a web application has a sub apps of bigger things and has a bunch of components to make the app itself. Django is a tool written in python that used to develop a website. If you look at the  Django website, it describes Django is a high level Python web framework that encourages rapid development in clean and pragmetic design. Web framework is a collection of tools to build a website. Django comes with Object Relational Mapper (ORM) which helps to make a database queries. It has a URL routing which helps to determine what logic to follow depending on the URL of a web request. Another feature is HTML templating which allows us to have presentation logic and insert data into our HTML. It contains a built-in web server for convenience but it is not used outside of the context. When we deploy Django on live website, it works in tandem with web server.
             In order to develop with Django, you need to install the latest version of python3. Once the installation is finished, you can install Django. When you installed python3, it is also installed a script called pip that installs python libraries and tools. You can install django by just typing the command of pip install django==2.2.7. Once you get successfully installed with pytz library which offers timezone support, you are ready to develop a Django project.
Django Files Overview:
           To create a project, just type django-admin.py startproject (projectname), then open that folder in the sublime or Atom text editor and you can see the files and the scripts generated. The manage.py file helps to run various commands for your project. The _init_ file tells python that this folder contains python files. The wsgi or wuzgi file provides a hook for web server. The settings file configure django and url file routes request based on the URL. With these files, you can run the project for the first time. So, just type python manage.py runserver in the terminal and open the browser to see the results. Now, you can see the default screen that Django makes when you create a new project and ready to build completely.

Developing Django App: Django app is a component within an overall Django project or folder with python files. Each Django app has a set of features for a specific purpose. Django app has the features related to forum, wiki, or blog etc., In order to create the app, type the command python manage.py startapp adoptions which will create an adoption app in the terminal.  In the adoptions, there are several files with migration folder. Now, you need to add the Django app to the project. Inside the settings file, you need to add the string of adoptions it installed. The Django has the following types of files and folder that plays an specific role in that application,
   * apps.py - it controls the settings specific to the app
   * models.py - it provides the data layer which the Django uses to construct our database schema and queries.
   * views.py - it defines the logic and control flow for handling request and defines the HTTP responses that are returned.
   * admin.py - it defines the administrative interface of the app. This will allow to see and edit the data
   * urls.py - this will be used for URL routing of the app
   * tests.py - it is used for writing the unit test for the functionality of the app.
   * migrations - this folder uses to migrate the database when you create and change our database schema.

Django Models & Views:
        Django uses a Model View Controller(MVC) architecture. It uses URL patterns, views, models and templates. When Django application receives web request, it uses the URL patterns to decide the views to pass the request for handling. Views provide the logic of the project. It works as a function that takes HTTP request and HTTP response. Each views leverage Django models to perform queries against the database. A Django model is a class with attributes that define the schema or underlying structure of the database table. It has built-in methods for making queries in the tables .Each view leverage templates which help with the presentation layer of the HTML response look like. The template is a separate file consists of HTML along with variables, loops and logic.
     
        URL Patterns   ----------->   Views -----------------> Templates
           (urls.py)                           (views.py)                   (adoptions/templates)                 
                                                       |
                                                       |
                                                       |
                                                  Models
                                                (models.py)
     
         If the request comes into Django with root path of just a slash, it first looks URL patterns to find the view and route the path to functions in adoption/views.py called home. The home function will take the request and make any database calls needed in adoptions/models.py. For ex, htttp://www.ourwebsite.com will be processed as,
   
       /    --------------------->   home ------------------->  adoptions/home.html
(Root Path)
         Models create data layer that create the database structure and query the database. Models.py contains set of models for the django app. Model is a class inheriting from django.db.models. It is used to define fields as class attributes. Model is similar to table in the spreadsheet. Each field of that model is the column for the spreadsheet table and each record in the database is a row in the spreadsheet. To define models fields, you need to define the attributes inside the model by using the fieldClasses with Charfield, or textfield, or integerfield. For each field, you can define the attributes of max_length or blank. To implement the models, open the models.py in the adoptions app. It contains the baseline as from django.db import models. Then, define the class as,

class Dream(models.Model):

   website = models.CharField(max_length = 100)
   mail = models.CharField(max_length = 100)
   name = models.CharField(max_length = 100)
   phonenumber = models.IntegerField()

   class Meta:
      db_table = "dream"

Django Migrations:
        The models define the structure of the database tables. Migrations generate the scripts to change the database structure when we update our code and models. When a new model is defined, the initial migration will create the corresponding database table. Also, the migration is needed when the field is added or removed from an existing model or attributes of the field has changed. The commands in migration are makemigration, showmigration and migrate. Makemigration reads the current model file and inspects the current state of the database to determine the changes need to make the database structure that match the models file. These files are placed in migration folder and numbered starting with one. We can run the migration for the specific app to specific number of migration by,
            Migrate  (appname) number
    Navigate to the folder of manage.py file in the terminal. To make your migration, type python manage.py makemigrations. You can see the output that the adoptions app created the migrations for the models. It is a initial migration, because it does not have the table for these models yet.  You can see the existing migration file by the command of python manage.py showmigrations. To apply the migration, type the command of pyhton manage.py migrate.  You can see the output that the migration applied successfully. The db.sqlite file which helps the database to work. Now, we can see the structure of the database in SQLLite that looks like. Also, you need to run the command of "python manage.py migrate --run-syncdb".  After running the migrations and confirmed that they are applied successfully and ready to use our database.

Django Admin:  It creates an adminstrative interface for our project. In admin.py, you need to import the models by "from .models import ". In order to make an admin interface of this model, you need to inherit the class from admin.modelAdmin. Pass keyword will be used for the valid python class. Then, you need to register this class with the admin to associate the model in it. For ex,

Now, you can see the results in the terminal. Before that, you have to create superuser. So, Just type the command of python manage.py
createsuperuser, set the superuser and password. Once you created the superuser successfully, you can run the project on browser(python manage.py runserver). This will navigate to the admin interface. Now, you can use the superusername and password to the Django admin portal. It lists all the models registered in Django admin.

URL Handlers and Views:  Open the adoptions folder and click on the views file. First, you need to  display the home view. Then, we can display the detail view. To accomplish this, the body of the home view needs to fetch all of the model information. So, we need to import the models and can make query to that models. The HTTP response function will take the responsibility of rendering the HTML on to the template. Also, you can make your view to be concerned with necessary database queries and passing the data to that template.  For ex, the view.py can be defined as,

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.http import HttpResponse

from models import dream

def home(request):
return render(request, 'home.html', {})

Now, we need to create a template folder inside the adoption folder. Inside the folder, we need to create a files for each of our template like home.html, detail.html etc., You may noticed that, if you started the development server, it displays the default welcome page. In order to use your new view, you need to tell the Django to display this view when someone navigates to the home page.  So, update the url.py as,

from django.conf.urls import url
from django.contrib import admin

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
]

Now, we are ready to test our views which will work.